I. INTRODUCTION

The Krystaline White Tank System a high durability, below grade waterproofing solution defined by waterproofing the concrete itself with hydrophilic crystalline admixtures, as opposed to conventional methods which rely on physical barriers, such as membranes and environmentally harmful bituminous compounds (black tanking).

II. THE TECHNOLOGY

Crystalline works by creating a catalytic reaction in the presence of moisture to enhance the hydration process of the cement component within the concrete, creating millions of insoluble calcium silicate hydrate (or C-S-H) crystals. The enhanced hydration process not only permanently reduces the permeability of the concrete, it also allows for an increased ability to self-heal micro cracking.

Due to the catalytic nature of the technology, it provides active protection for the entire life of the structure, triggering additional reactions in the presence of water and stopping any leaks that may appear.

III. WHITE TANK SYSTEM

The first and most important component in the Krystaline White Tank System is the addition of a crystalline admixture, such as Krystaline Add1, Krystaline Add1 HD or Krystaline Add PLUS 2.5 to the fresh concrete. The result is self-healing waterproof concrete for the entire life of the structure.

In order to ensure the water tightness of the structure, in addition to adding crystalline to the concrete, the following points, as seen in the above image, also need to be considered:


1. JOINT DESIGNS

Concrete joints, if not treated properly, constitute a high risk for leaks. Follow Application Instructions “AP 22.11 – Internal Day Joint Design Number 1” or “AP 22.13 – Internal Day Joint Design Number 3” for all vertical and horizontal joints to ensure that water cannot penetrate through the joints.02tanking

2. TIE HOLES

Follow Application Instructions “AP 20.10 Krystaline Tie Hole Repair Instructions – New Construction” to waterproof tie holes in concrete left as a result of formwork applications.


3. PIPE PENETRATIONS

Follow Application Instructions “AP 20.03a (without flowing water)” and/or “AP 20.03b (with flowing water)”.

I. FEATURES & KEY BENEFITS

With the Krystaline White Tank System, many of the issues associated with traditional waterproofing systems can be eliminated.

1. Effective protection for the life of the concrete: Krystaline provides effective protection for the life of the concrete. Once added to the concrete, the development of internal crystal growth begins. With Krystaline, the concrete becomes more durable and more waterproof with time. Membranes are the best they will ever be when first applied provided they have been applied perfectly. Eventually they will 1. be subject to problems due to photo-oxidation, prolonged contact with water, water delamination at the adhesion point, dissolved compounds from atmospheric pollution, attacks by microbiological organisms and /or changes to the internal structure until they fail.

2. Areas with high water tables: Applications in wet areas are an advantage for Krystaline, as prolonged contact with water only improves the waterproofing aspects of the concrete. In areas with high water tables there is a constant risk of membrane systems delaminating due to high opposite side water pressure. This risk is eliminated with Krystaline.

3. Water-borne contaminants: Since Krystaline prevents the ingress of water into the concrete, it also prevents the entrance of dissolved contaminants into the concrete. By stopping water and contaminants (sulphates, chlorides, carbon dioxide, etc.) pathologies such as carbonation, alkali-silica reaction, and reinforcing steel corrosion are prevented.

4. Ease of use: Krystaline concrete is subject to standard concreting practices. It requires no extra attention to application of membrane joints, surface adhesion, the need for clean and dry concrete or special finishing requirements. As long as the admixture is properly dosed and added to the concrete, normal concreting practices of properly placing, finishing and curing are all that is required to permanently install an effective waterproof concrete.

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Krystaline eliminates the difficulties of placing membrane or other positive side technologies for blindside applications. As it is completely substitutive of traditional waterproofing systems, there are no membranes to de-bond, no membrane joints to worry about, and no need to over-excavate.

5. Maximize space: Since Krystaline concrete does not require over-excavation, it is possible to take advantage of space that would be used for excavation and allow better optimization of the area available. This allows structures to have a bigger area and not waste valuable space.

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6. Eliminates application errors: Krystaline eliminates all risk of errors associated with membrane applications and surface treatment technologies. This means that it also eliminates all costs associated with membrane errors. While human error is a constant concern on job sites, Krystaline concrete requires no extra on site labour and is not subject to on site application errors. When membranes have been applied incorrectly, locating and repairing the error is extremely difficult due to lack of accessibility.

7. Eliminates future maintenance costs: Future problems with membranes are subject to the same difficulties of inaccessibility and high repair cost. Krystaline applications are permanent, lasting the life of the concrete, should problems arise from micro-cracking of the concrete in the future, Krystaline will autogenously self-heal the concrete.12tanking

8. Environmentally friendly: Krystaline, unlike membrane systems, is not based on petroleum or other environmentally unfriendly materials. Krystaline products are completely VOC free (volatile organic compound).

9. Allows for increased creative design: Krystaline concrete allows for creative freedom in design. Membranes can often create limitation in design and finishing, but with Krystaline, beautiful fashionable concrete with curves, corners and other design needs can easily be met.

Krystaline is a permanent solution that turns difficult problems into successful applications while providing excellent cost to quality benefits.