In environments subject to dramatic temperature fluctuations, temperatures that will shift between freezing and thawing cycles, concrete is subject to cracking and spalling. The deterioration process is usually a direct result of water (moisture) ingress into the pores and capillaries of the concrete during the thaw cycles and then freezing in place during the freeze cycles. The frozen water expands in the pores and capillaries and causes cracking and deterioration within the concrete. Over time as several cycles of freeze-thaw occur increased water ingress will result and the concrete’s deterioration will begin to accelerate.
Often in steel reinforced concrete structures the initial micro-cracks and pore and capillary deterioration that occurs during the initial freeze-thaw cycles is enough to begin the corrosion process of the reinforcing steel. The combined effects of increased water ingress into the concrete being frozen and thawed together with the expansion stress placed on the concrete through corrosion of reinforcing steel results in continuous acceleration in the deterioration process.
Krystaline Add+ is designed to increase concrete’s durability in freeze thaw environments. This is accomplished through a combination of eliminating water penetration into the concrete and modification of the air content within the concrete. The result is a dramatic increase in the durability of concrete through many freeze-thaw cycles.
Elimination of water penetration into the concrete is accomplished through Krystaline’s unique crystalline technology. Krystaline Add+ will create a reaction between the cement particles in concrete and water to further develop crystalline growth beyond concrete’s own natural abilities creating a waterproof concrete. Since Krystaline Add+ stops the water from entering the pores and capillaries of the concrete it is able to stop the deterioration of freeze-thaw cycles. Krystaline Add+ will also create a more even distribution of entrained air, providing a minimal increase in the air entrainment value of the concrete. The even disbursement of the air within the concrete provides effective outlets for freeze expansion should a liquid become present for any reason in the concrete.
Krystaline Add+ is the ideal solution to prevent deterioration and increase durability in Freeze-Thaw Environments.